Csepreg, a historical town in the western Transdanubian region

Csepreg, a historical town in the western Transdanubian region

The area around Csepreg is geographically part of the peripheral region of Western Hungary. Here, the hill country at the eastern foot of the Alps meets the Hungarian Lowland. The area belongs to the Rába-Rábca water catchment system. The largest river in the area is Répce. It originates in the Austrian hill country called Bucklige Welt and in the ages before the modern regulation, it flowed north of Kapuvár into the marshes of the Hanság. In the modern era, its bed was merged with that of the Kis-Rábá in the latter place, from here it flows under the name Rábca to Győr, where it meets the Mosoni-Danube. The name of Répc was originally the Slavic Rábca. The upper section of the river can be counted up to the hills near Locsmánd. Its middle section - which runs from Zsira to the Dénesfa area - is understood as the immediate catchment area of ​​Csepreg. This was more or less the modern Csepreg district. Today, this area is called the Répce plain. On the right bank side of the river, from west to east, there are increasingly lower ridges. Since György Répceszent, these have only been characterized by a high coast, and then they smooth out into the Little Plain. The more important tributaries of the middle section of the Répce are the Metőc and Pós streams. From the right side, it receives the waters of the Boldogasszony stream, the Ablánc stream and the Kőris stream.


Road conditions in the area can be traced back to Roman times. The main road connecting Savaria with Scarbantia (Szombathely with Sopron) stretched further west of our area, crossing the Répcé at Répcekethely (Mannersdorf). However, it is conceivable that another Savaria-Scarbantia connecting road could have roughly followed today's Szombathely-Csepreg-Zsira-Sopronkeresztúr-Sopron line. It is typical that the roads connecting the most important centers were mostly in the same place as they are today. The road following the Répce Valley runs along the left bank. This connected Locsmánd with Kapuvár in the early Árpád period. Today's highway number 84 - which leads from Vienna to the Balaton area - also has a significant history. The road connecting Kőszeg with Fertőszentmiklós crosses Répcé at present-day Zsira (at its Salamonfa part).

Csepreg is essentially avoided by major long-distance routes. The development of the settlement is primarily explained by the crossing of the Répce, the main axes of the settlement formed here were the Sárvár-Kőszeg and Szombathely-Sopron roads. It is connected to Szombathely by the 22 km road through Tömörd. Direct connection to Sopron via Zsirán and Füles (Nikitsch) (35 km). The road leads to Kőszeg via Horvátzsidány (15 km). In the direction of Sárvár, the shortest 32 km route takes you through Acsád.


Traces of the first permanent human settlement - as everywhere in the wider area - are known from the Neolithic period, 7-8 thousand years ago, in the area of ​​the central Répce Valley. Traces of settlements from this period were found in the Csókarigó vineyard, on a former floodplain island. In the same period, settlements were also created in the valleys of the Ablánc and the Boldogasszony streams. Practically since then, we can talk about the continuous population of the area. A cemetery with shriveled skeletons from the beginning of the Bronze Age and nearby remains of a residential building were excavated in the area of ​​the former gravel mine near Öreg-Répce. Among other things, an amber pearl of Baltic origin was found in the graves, proving that long-distance trade relations in the area go back at least 4,000 years. The most beautiful find from the Celtic period is a fragment of a blister bracelet on display in the local museum. This was found during afforestation in the area between Ablánc-patak and Répce.


The older perception that tried to identify Csepreg with the Roman settlement called Bassiana on the road between Savaria and Arrabona (Szombathely and Győr) is wrong. The location of the Roman-era settlements can only be located on the basis of archaeological observations. In any case, the central Répce Valley was inhabited in the Roman era as well as in the centuries that have passed since then. However, this population could not be continuous, because not a single place name of Roman origin survived in the area. As an antecedent of Csepreg, there may have been significant Roman settlements on both sides of the crossing of the Répce, which has been known for thousands of years. A large brick kiln was found on the right bank of the river. The so-called left bank At the Szentkirályi mill, a detail of a villa building was excavated. In 1891, Bella Lajos reported on the excavation of a Roman tomb west of Izabella-major (SRTÉ 1891. 72.).


We know the graves of Avar warriors from the 8th-9th century from a gravel mine near Meggyespuszta. Typical late Avar, tendril-decorated belt buckles, jewelry, and other grave finds come from here.

We know very little about the decades immediately preceding the Transdanubian occupation of the Hungarian tribal association. At that time, our region belonged to the East Frankish kingdom, the predecessor of the later Germany. One of the few localities that we can locate in the area of ​​Carolingian Pannonia is located in the Répce region, on the edge of the Csepreg border. The contemporary source "Conversio Bagvariorum et Carantanorum" mentions that in 865 - or a few years later - Archbishop Adalwin of Salzburg consecrated a church in Ablanza. It is not difficult to recognize the name of the later village of Ablánc (now only a mill). Unfortunately, the exact location and remains of the 9th century church have not yet been identified. When our conquering ancestors took possession of the area, it could have suffered the same fate that Archbishop Theotmár of Salzburg IX. We learn from his letter to Pope János: the occupying Hungarians "burned the churches of God and destroyed all the buildings".


Apart from the only cemetery from the time of the conquest in Szakony that was excavated in our region, the characteristic place names mostly reflect the conditions of the 10th century. In our countryside, just like in other parts of the country, you can find place names formed from the names of the conquering tribes and the leaders, princes, and their servant peoples. These can provide help - even if only hypothetically - for the historical reconstruction of the era.

Among the tribes, the names Tarján, Kér and Megyer occur in the immediate vicinity. Kér (Nemeskér, Újkér), Tarján (vineyard name between Bő and Simaság), and Megyer as the name of a village that no longer exists today (Kürtösmegyer, in Iván's countryside) are still alive today. The place name Berény (Iklanberény) presumably preserves the memory of a Turkish ethnic group that joined the Hungarians. The earliest group of chieftains is represented by the place names referring to chieftains Huba (destroyed village between Bük and Bő), Lád (Ládony) and Ond (today's Und), presumably belonging to the generation of the conquerors. The fact that the accommodation of Kál (Sajtoskál) belonging to the Lád family is located next to Lád (Ládony) is a good indication that the individual accommodations were used for several generations. The same can be said about the accommodations in Huba and Szemere. According to György Györffy, along the Répce, leader Huba and then his descendant, Szemere, had the so-called with a change of accommodation route. The picture may have been more complex, because two other noble families (Ond family and the Lád family) also had residences in the area in the first half of the 10th century.


The appearance of the Árpáds in the region along the Répce probably took place only in the middle of the 10th century. In 948 in Byzantium, VII. Duke Tormás, one of Árpád's great-grandsons, who visited Emperor Constantine together with leader Bulcsú, could have stayed in the Tormás plain within the later borders of Csepreg. The name of a (since destroyed) village referring to Prince Géza (Dicsk) can also be found in its immediate vicinity. During his time, the ruling family may have taken possession of the great fortress of Locsmánd, which was previously owned by the family of one of the leaders (Huba, Ond?). This may be indicated by the neighboring place name Sarud, which may refer to Géza's wife, Sarolt. It is hardly a coincidence that the local name Vajk (Bajka), which preserves the pagan name of St. István, can be found in its neighborhood, on the site of today's Ólmod.


Csepreg is also a typical personal name from the time of the conquest (Turkish meaning: "pepper shaker"). The name is a typical example of Turkish naming to deceive harmful spirits. It belongs to the oldest personal name type. Its origins definitely go back to the times immediately following the conquest of the country. By the way, this is the most typical type of place name in the area. Certainly, the descendants of the conquering warrior middle class were the descendants of the later large number of small nobles of the Répce region. The waterways and rich grassy meadows of the Répce were the ideal location for the settlement of the large animal-keeping, partially nomadic conquering warrior class.

When the state was organized, the area was transferred to the county of Sopron, including the district of Locsmánd. Castle serfs from Locsmánd lived e.g. also in the village called Gatály, which later merged into the border of Csepreg. From the point of view of church administration, the parish of Csepreg was transferred to the archdeaconry of Locsmánd of the diocese of Győr. Our oldest archeologically known ecclesiastical place in today's city limits was the Holy King's Church, which was already functioning in the 12th century, on the left bank elevation next to the bend of Öreg Répce. In its place today is the parking lot of the Öreg Malom Hotel. The church that stood on the site of the Blessed Virgin's chapel until 1861 may have been even earlier.



We know of two small Árpád-era castle remains in the present-day city limits. 3 km west of the center of Csepreg, on the Ruzsa hill, there is the part of the forest currently called Csúsztato. A hill with an extremely advantageous location at the prominent point of the valley of the Boldogasszony-patak, which rises directly above the Kőszeg-Csepreg road. It was probably connected to the medieval village of Gatály, which bears the name of the genus of the same name. The forest-covered hill is tszf. its height is 233 m, it has a relative height of 30 m. It can be reached via the dirt road starting from the western shore of the Bene-hegyi lake in Csepreg, leading between the Ruzsa-hegyi vineyards and running along the ridge. After the dense pine forest that previously covered the area was cleared, it was easy to see that there was an oval-shaped central hill with a base area of ​​7 x 6 m and an approx. It was surrounded by a dry ditch 2 m deep and 8-10 m wide. On the outside of this, the so-called an "outer rampart" was formed. It is one of the smallest castles from the Árpád era. Fragments of pots from the Árpád period, fragments of burned-through taping and bones were found in the castle.

In the lower part of Csepreg, the so-called In Malomkert, on the banks of the former Répce riverbed, there is the largely washed away, flattened remains of a 1 m high and 8 m diameter, presumably truncated cone-shaped mound from the Middle Ages (it could have been much higher at one time). The mound was surrounded by a low earthen embankment surrounding a rounded trapezoidal area of ​​45 x 30 m. Its southern and eastern sections have been destroyed due to earthworks. The western and northern sides are still visible. The distance from the small hill to the medieval church of St. Catherine is 400 m. The Kis-Répce riverbed once stretched along its eastern edge. From the medieval property history data, we can conclude that it may have been a building of the Franks who moved to our country in 1156. Fragments of pottery from the Árpád period were found in the area.


Csepreg, which may have been the most important and largest settlement in the region from the beginning, appears in written sources only in 1255. We hear from 1257 that it was inhabited by royal hospes (guests). It is mentioned as a civitas (city) in 1348 and again in 1357. The city's coat of arms, known from before 1362, is very telling. This is the same as the type depicting the three-towered city wall. Similar coats of arms are known without exception in administrative centers with castles (Sopron, Bratislava, Székesfehérvár, Zagreb, Buda). The city charter issued around 1360 was issued by judge Tamás and the sworn citizens together with the Csepreg community. In 1451, he confirmed a charter of the city with a similar but smaller seal. Csepreg used the same seal image later, in the modern era as well.

Palatine and other general assemblies and county assemblies were often held near Csepreg around the Bolgodasszony church outside the city. There were two parishes in the city, not counting the outlying Szentkirály, which is a rarity even in larger cities. Csepreg was one of the most populous market towns in Hungary. Based on a data from 1522, approx. We can count on 1,650 inhabitants. The importance of the settlement is shown by the fact that it was a Jewish street. In the late Middle Ages - unlike the majority of Hungarian cities - the city was headed by a mayor, a judge and, based on later data, a council consisting of 12 jurors. According to András Kubinyi, the mayorship, which is unusual for market towns, may show the influence of Sopron. According to a certificate from 1451, Sopron, Kőszeg, Csepreg, Rohonc, Szombathely and Sárvár formed a city association.


Csepreg was one of the residences of the Kanizsais: from the beginning of the 15th century to the second decade of the 16th century, a Kanizsai regularly lived here, who also kept an official. Between 1440 and 1514, a total of 11 students from Csepergi enrolled at the University of Vienna.

According to data from the end of the 16th century, four national fairs were held in Csepre every year. Among them, we can confirm the one held annually on St. Michael's Day (September 29) from the Middle Ages. Its Thursday weekly market is also often mentioned by our sources.

Even the larger cities and the most important market towns dominated their narrower market areas. There was also a legal basis for this: two weekly markets could not be held on the same day within a radius of two Hungarian miles. On this - due to the bends of the country roads, as the crow flies, approx. Within a radius of 13-15 km, cities and larger market towns generally did not allow other central locations to prevail. This can be precisely verified in the case of Csepreg as well. His business relations for the citizens of Csepreg extended to Western Hungary and even beyond the borders. It was not by chance that Csepreg was one of the most populous Hungarian market towns.


Today's Csepreg certainly merged from two separate settlements. In addition to the use of the names Alsóváros-Felsőváros, which still exists to this day, the two separate medieval parishes and the different structure of the two settlement parts also indicate this. A keystone with the coat of arms of Egervár was found during the historical research of the St. Katalin church in Alsóváros. We know that in 1475, the people of Egervár received the estates of the extinct Frankó (or Gős, Gősfalvi) family as a donation. The ancestors of the Franks, the knights Albrecht and Gottfried, reached II. Courtesy of King Géza to their estates around Csepreg. Among them was the later Alsóváros of Csepreg. The old name of Csó can also perhaps be connected to the Sár mentioned in the certificates, which was the center of the family's estate. The Árpád-era church of the Blessed Virgin outside the settlement may have been the original lower parish. A medieval hospital can be assumed on the site of St. Catherine's church.

Several previously independent settlements were merged into the borders of the developing city. Csékéd was mentioned separately in 1255, the temple village known from archaeological excavations, Szentkirály, Gatály, which gave its name to the Árpád dynasty, the old Ablánc estate. But we can guess a similar destroyed medieval settlement in the case of Bene, Meggyes and Tormás. The amalgamation of these villages certainly took place in the late Middle Ages. The final unification of the two parts of the settlement could have already taken place during the Nádasdyaks' lordship that began after 1532.


Our historical data indicate that the upper town of Csepreg was a privileged "civitas" (city) inhabited by royal "hospes" (guests) - initially mostly German-speaking - since the middle of the 13th century at the latest. This is also hinted at by the title of St. Nicholas of its parish - typical of trading towns - its characteristic rectangular market square and the regular street system of the settlement's core. The city issued charters as early as the 14th century. The Gothic Csepreg Madonna statue preserved in the Hungarian National Gallery originates from this early stage of the city's development. Even then, the town had significant grape cultivation, since in 1321 a mountain toll was already collected, and we know specific names of vineyard hills. In 1348, we learn about Csepreg, Kőszeg and Rohonc exporting wine to Styria.

Csepreg was a royal town until 1390, when Zsigmond donated it to the Kanizsai family. From then on, it was a market town ("oppidum") until the end of the 19th century. The Kanizsaiaks - the predecessor of today's castle in Upper Town - built it into a castle with defenses. The completion of construction is indicated by the fact that King Zsigmond and his wife, Queen Borbála, stayed in Csepreg in November 1423 as guests of István Kanizsai. The reason for this was certainly the wedding of László Kanizsai and the queen's niece, Dorottya Garai. We hear about the building as a castle for the first time in 1509, when János Kanizsai kept people illegally captured and robbed by his familiars in serious captivity. The church of the Blessed Virgin outside the city was occupied and fortified by the "Hussites", i.e. Austrian and Czech mercenaries, between 1452-54, János Hunyadi tried to take it back from them with a siege in 1454. The later data on the castle lords of Csepreg could already refer to the Kanizsai castellum. During the peasant uprising led by György Dózsa, on July 9, 1514, Sopron, Vas and Zala counties held a joint assembly in Csepreg, where János Kanizsai was asked to protect the nobility of the counties.


The city's heyday can be traced back to the time of Nádasdyak. In 1532, Tamás Nádasdy became engaged, and in 1535 he married Orsolya Kanizsai, the heiress of the princely family fortune. When the Turkish troops of Sultan Sülejmán camped in the neighboring field of Szakony after the siege of Kőszeg, the city owed its integrity to the fact that Nádasdy was a supporter of the Hungarian king János Szapolyai, who was allied with the Turks. During the time of the Nádasdyaks, in 1549, a census mentions the city's gatekeepers, which indicates that the market town was surrounded by palanquin fences at that time (and perhaps even earlier).

In the middle of the 16th century, the population became Lutheran. The Csepreg Protestant Synod held on June 2-3, 1591 was a significant event in church history. It was then that the separation of the Lutheran and Reformed denominations took place in Western Hungary.

In 1605, the wedding of Miklós Zrínyi and Anna Nádasdy was held in Nádasdy Castle. At that time, the building is characterized as a spacious palace. A few weeks later, Gergely Némethy, the commander of Prince Bocskai's Transdanubian armies, also summoned the nobility of Sopron and the neighboring counties.

In January 1621, the evangelical Csepreg, which was then pro-Bethlen, was outraged by the imperial army led by Collalto. According to the poem by the unknown deacon, 1,223 people fell victim to the worst destruction in Hungary during the 30-year war. The two churches were besieged. In the upper town church in particular, the residents persistently defended themselves against the imperial mercenaries. This was made possible by the fact that the church was surrounded by a high brick wall with portholes, with a moat on the outside.


At the end of the 16th century and in the first half of the 17th century, Csepreg, which belonged to the Sárvár-Feltsővidék estate of the Nádasdyaks, was the most significant settlement in the area between the two free royal cities, Kőszeg and Sopron. After the previous century, in the 17th century as well, it hosted the general assemblies and courts of Sopron county several times. But its administrative function dwarfed the role it played in the history of the region during the Reformation. The expansion and victory of the Reformation also brought complex, interconnected social, cultural and mental changes in the case of Csepreg, which had a decisive impact on the image of the settlement, the development of its social structure, the urban infrastructure, and the expansion of the functional system. The town's college became an important educational center for the evangelical nobility and citizens of the region. Research so far places its student population at the beginning of the 17th century at more than 300. The printing house relocated by István Lethenyei from Keresztúr, another market town of Nádasdyak, signaled the town's strength and rebirth even after the massacre of 1621, which drastically broke the demographic and social development of the town. Imre Farkas' printing house operated until 1643. So far, we know of 26 books produced here. In addition to several religious works, calendars and prayer books, perhaps the most interesting of them is the hydrological work on the Balfi spa. The vargas won their privileges in 1611, in 1614 the tailors and the millers of Répcemellek, and in 1617 the saddlers, saddlers, belt makers, and gunsmiths gathered in one guild. In 1628, the joint guild of bognárs and farriers, in 1630 the blacksmiths, and in 1643 the cobblers received guild privileges. In the second half of the 17th century, in 1688, the weavers' guild received articles.


The massacre of 1621 did not put an end to the general development that began in the middle of the 16th century, despite the great break, the Catholicization of the regional judge Ferenc Nádasdy in 1643 and the related sectarian conflicts between 1644-1655 resulted in a new era. The market town lost its cultural institution and function system. In the last third of the century, the population's attempt to break out also failed: the gr. The assets of the country judge Ferenc Nádasdy were processed in chambers. In 1676, Csepreg wanted to redeem his freedom with money, but this failed despite promising negotiations. It is worth listing the street names in Csepreg mentioned in the 18th century: Cser, Csikos, Csó, Fehér, Hosszú, Kovács, Magyar, Pap, Tímár, Ürgés and Visi utca. Not one of them is still alive and known today.

In the 17th century, the municipality of Csepreg was headed by the mayor (magister civium), followed in the hierarchy by the chief judge (városbíró). In addition to the two city managers, 12 jurors were active. In the list of a 1662 Mezőváros publication, we also meet the petty judge. The market town had two mountain masters. The defining official of the administrative apparatus of the settlement is the clerk, who very often was also the schoolmaster at the same time as he performed this task. The renovations took place on an annual basis around St. George's Day (April 24).


2 volumes of legislative minutes from the period 1636-1662 of Csepreg market town have survived. In front of the court of the market town, not only the residents of the settlement sued, but also the cases of outsiders who owned properties in the Csepreg vineyards - small nobles, serfs, squires - were judged here in the first instance. The litigants were represented by lawyers in a significant number of cases, according to the market town practice observed in other cities of the time. Some of the lawsuits were transferred from the Csepreg court to the Nádasdyak court in Sárvár.

The 17th-century Csepreg, with its extensive vineyards, belonged to the peculiar formation of the Hungarian urban development, to the block of wine-growing market towns in western Hungary that cannot be merged into one. Special attention should be paid to the Csepreg mountain book from the period 1647-1789, which is also known from previous works.

In a reform-era county description, 15 vineyards in Csepreg are mentioned and the annual yield at the beginning of the 19th century was given as 10,000 ako. The wine was described as a "hard and good" juice. The mountain book provides information on the following 24 vineyards: Hosszúgyöp, Közészer, Bayszer, Rusa, Grund (Gurumb), Vílagos, Grádics, Pogány, Felső-Benye, Ramok, Felső-Hanga, Bosek, Alsó-Hanga, Kis Hanga, Nagy Kincse, Kis Kincse, Szak-hegy, Köves Gödör, Nagy Gödör, Pető hill, Pető gödre, Upper-Csékéd, Middle-Csékéd, Lower-Csékéd. According to the inscriptional records of Csepreg, the number of so-called bebíros (owners living in other settlements) on the vineyards of Csepreg was significant. For example, the residents of the three Bük owned most of the vineyards in the three Csékés.


During the War of Independence in Rákóczi, the armies of both warring parties turned around in the city several times. Generals Simon Forgách and János Bottyán from the Kurucs, János Pálffy and Guido Starhemberg from the Labancs attacked the city.

The fire of April 1, 1776 resulted in the destruction of a significant part of the city and the death of several people. This event was immortalized in a poem by István Kozma, the parish priest at the time. In memory of this, the bell ringing at four in the afternoon has become a tradition.

In 1818, in order to reduce the risk of flooding that often threatened the city in the past, the construction of the artificial channel, which has been called Ásás ever since, began. The Futtató-gyöp between Ásás and Öreg-Répce, according to the first review from 1819, were famous for the Whit Monday horse races. The Jankovichs from Csepreg and later Pál Nagy from Felsőbüki also played a role in its organization. At the end of the feudal age, 16 Hungarian acres of arable land and 6 acres of meadow belonged to the entire plot of land defined in the urbarium in Csepregen. The population of the town in 1848 was 2,458. Among others, landowner Izidor Jankovich, parish priest István Szabó, and pharmacist József Hartmann were elected to the Sopron county temporary committee. Several Csepregi participated in the 1848-49 War of Independence as national guardsmen. In addition to National Guard Major Ferenc Brukner, Captain Rudolf Kozma and Lieutenant János Belkovich, the names of 22 veterans are known. The war events of the War of Independence only affected the town itself to the extent that in October 1848, Csepreg lads captured seven marauding Croatian soldiers (from Jellasics' retreating army).


Composer Ignác Bognár (1811-1883) was born in Csepre. He wrote operas, choral works, and song inserts for folk plays. He compiled two collections of folk songs in the 1850s. He also set 36 of Sándor Petőfi's poems to music. Dr. was also born in Csepreg. János Horváth Csepreg (1853-1945) lawyer, economist, one of the initiators of the cooperative movement at the end of the last century. The birthplace of both of them is marked by a plaque. A pharmacy has been operating in the city since 1842. Its founder, József Hartmann, was the president of the national pharmacists' association. The post office was opened in 1857. It was built across the border of the market town in 1865 on the so-called between Sopron-Nagykanizsa. southern railway. In 1867, the company led by knight Carstanjen from Sopron, together with the Schöller bank in Vienna, built the largest sugar factory in the area in the outskirts near Szakony, the so-called at the Csepreg factory. In 1884, they acquired the ownership of the castle in Upper Town from Count Gyula Jankovich. Csepreg's first modern bank, Répcevidéki Takarékpénztár, was founded in 1873. The Street Lighting Association began its operations in 1875. A significant event in the development of the small town was the organization of the Csepreg district in 1876, which originally consisted of half a hundred villages. The Volunteer Firemen's Association, which still operates today, was founded in 1882. In connection with the establishment of modern civil administration, in 1886, instead of the previous title of "field town", it was given the status of a large municipality (this did not mean a step back then!). In 1887, Chaplain Sándor Farkas published his monograph entitled "The History of Csepreg Mezőváros". We can safely say that the then 34-year-old young priest created one of the most thorough and detailed city monographs of the entire territory of old Hungary. He later moved to parishes further away from Csepreg, but returned to the city as a pensioner and died here in 1938.


In the years after the turn of the century, the Kollár brothers founded the Columbia Leather Factory in Csepreg, whose products - we can safely say - became known worldwide. In 1910, a hospital association was organized in the city. Its capital was provided by the Bauer family from Tormás and the Répcevidék Savings Bank. In 1913, the railway line connecting Sárvár to Kőszeg via Csepreg was put into operation. The beginning of the local press was marked by "Csepreg és vidéke" published in 1904, followed by "Répcevidéki Hírlap" from 1909.

The small town, the seat of the district, underwent significant development as a whole between 1867-1945. In the 1930s, its population exceeded 4,000 people. Electric lighting has been operating in the settlement since 1923, it was connected to the national grid in 1941. The new village hall, with the medieval coat of arms on its facade, was built in 1930. We can talk about a flourishing cultural life in Csepre in the decades between the two wars. The civil school began its operation in 1920. The Iparoskör song hall was founded in the twenties, its legal successor, the Iparos Dalkör, was established in 1932. Földműves Dalárda started its operation back in 1920. The two choirs were united in 1937 under the name Csepregi Male Choir. The city brass band was founded in 1930. Sister Mária Mechtilda Rajczy (Daughters of the Divine Redeemer), the daughter of the registrar at the time, wrote Csepreg's literary past and folk poetry and ethnographic traditions as her doctoral dissertation. His work was also published as an independent volume in 1944. Jenő Csepregen Lázár, the owner of the basalt mine in Sághegy, performed military service as a laborer. The city can thank him for the construction of the two artesian wells in 1942.


The two great wars of the 20th century also demanded sacrifices from the city's population. 204 people died a heroic death in World War I. After the Trianon Dictate, the revision efforts between 1938-41 were partially successful, which the residents of Csepreg were also happy about, but the country also drifted into the Second World War. The latter claimed the lives of 134 local residents. 89 of them were soldiers, 45 were civilian victims - including 36 of our Jewish compatriots. Among the tragic events of 1944 is the gathering and deportation of the Jews of the former district to the ghetto established in Csepreg. More than 200 of them were killed during the emergency period. The Soviet-German front passed through the settlement on March 29, 1945. The retreating German troops blew up the Répce bridge. It was only nearly half a century later, after the regime change, that it was possible to officially commemorate the local victims of the Second World War and those who died a heroic death on the front lines.

During the land distribution in 1945, 2,255 cadastral acres of land were distributed among 508 claimants, but most of the former large estate went to state farms. The first producer cooperative was founded in 1949, under the name Petőfi Sándor Termelőszövetkezet, and in 1960 the Új Élet Tsz was established. The two were united in 1961 under the name Győzelem Termelőszötvetekezet. The Csepreg State Farm was established in 1961 by merging the previously separate smaller State Farms (Kincsédpusztai, Meggyespusztai, etc.). Both economic units played a major role in the life of the settlement. After the system change in 1990, both farms and Csepreg és Vidéke ÁFÉSZ were transformed into joint stock companies and limited liability companies.


The fact that the Csepreg district was abolished in 1950, the offices operating here, the court, notary, land office, tax office, etc., were not good for the development of the city. The northern half of the old district went to Győr-Sopron county, while the southern part, together with Csepreg, went to Vas county. The former district seat was reclassified as a simple village, and it even regained the title of large village only in 1970. Various improvements were made during the half-started development. The piped water service started in 1964, the first phase of the sewage system was completed in 1972. The Csepreg plant of the Sopron Clothing Factory was completed in 1968. However, the railway line was terminated in 1974, and as a "result" of this, Bük became the cold storage of the state economy and the site of a later industrial investment. There has always been a great interest in the town's past. The National Knowledge Circle was founded in 1956. Later, especially teacher Lőrinc Wellner did a lot in the field of local history research and collecting museum objects. The local history collection called the "Village Museum" opened its doors in 1977. Around 1,400 artefacts can be seen here in six exhibition rooms, as well as numerous archaeological and ethnographic objects and tools for several small crafts. The Csepreg guidebook was also published in 1981 by teacher Wellner, with the first brief 20th century historical overview of the locality.


The settlement got its old city title back on July 1, 1995. On the first anniversary of its declaration as a city, a reprint of the monograph written by Sándor Farkas presenting the history of the market town and a study volume publishing new results were published. The Farkas Sándor Egylet, with the help of the parish, published the collection Tales and Tales of Répce Mente in 1996, and in 1997 Mária Rajczy reprinted Mechtilda Csepreg's literary past and folk poetry traditions. In the following decades, the association published 8 more books. Since 1992, the city has again had a local press, Csepregi Promenád c. monthly paper, then its legal successor is Répcevidék. Csepreg can boast of an advanced educational and cultural institution system. Kindergarten, Primary School, Music School named after Ignác Bognár, and VMSZC Nádasdy Tamás Technical College and College. The predecessor of the latter institution started its operation in 1962. His secondary computer science training was one of the first in the country to start. The Petőfi Sándor Cultural House and Library began its operation in 1954. The building of the new Kindergarten was handed over in 1987. The new Health Center was inaugurated in 1989. In 1997, with the help of the Szent Katalin Alapítvány, the Old People's Day Home, which has been operating for decades, was housed in the old monastery building, expanding it with a boarding department.


In recent decades, the settlement has undergone significant infrastructural development. Gas pipelines were built in every street, telephone service was complete. The settlement was completely sewered, and the regional treatment plant was handed over in 1997. Many new private enterprises are operating. Among them, Euroboard Kft., Fal Kft., WFK-Ü Kft., Uniriv Kft. and Unigalv Kft. can boast outstanding results. Several sewing shops operate in the city. In the baking industry, the bakery of Soproni és Társa Kft. has earned a serious reputation in the region. Restaurants are operated by private entrepreneurs without exception. Hotel Öreg Malom, Hangya Panzió and during summer holidays the dormitory of the high school can be used as accommodation. The football team of the Csepregi Sport Association, which was founded in 1924, achieved the greatest success in its history in 1998, entering the III. of the national championship. to his class. He is currently playing in the I. division of the county championship. The city's oldest cultural association is the Brass Band, which has been operating since 1930. Csepregi Vegyeskar was established in 1980. Its largest tradition-preserving association, Farkas Sándor Egylet, has been active since 1993.

In 2005, on the 10th anniversary of its declaration as a city, significant developments began. The construction of a new, modern school has begun, and preparations for the renovation of the historic Fő-tér (Széchenyi-tér) have also begun. Dr. The school named after János Horváth from Csepreg was handed over on September 1, 2007, and the renovated Fő-tér was inaugurated on September 10, 2011.


Csepreg's monuments:

Roman Catholic Church (Széchenyi tér 24)

In its oldest form, it could have been built in the first half of the 14th century based on its present appearance. Its first documented mention comes from 1433. The title of Szent Miklós is characteristic of merchant towns. The gate of the tower is of late Gothic, 15th century origin. Already in 1592, its tower clock was in operation. It was rebuilt in the Baroque style in the 18th century. The last major overhaul was in 1939, when the ship was completely rebuilt. Its main altar is painted by Johann Cimbal, dating from the time of Mária Theresa.

Mary's column (Széchenyi tér 24.)

An early Baroque work from before 1670, with the Nádasdy coat of arms, half removed but recently restored.

Schöller Castle (Széchenyi tér 22.)

The castle of the Kanizsai family from the late Middle Ages, first mentioned in 1509, belonged to the Nádasdyas from 1532 to 1671, later to the Draskovich, then to the Sinzendorf, Szluha, and finally to the Jankovich family between 1775-1884. Its classicist reconstruction between 1808-1811 is attributed to Hild Vencel. Count Gyula Jankovich sold it to the Schöller sugar factory in Vienna, later a district serf court and then a school operated within its walls.


St. Catherine's church and monastery building (Kossuth L. u. 67.)

It was once a hospital church. The coat of arms of the Egervár family was visible on one of the keystones of its medieval predecessor. The late Gothic construction of the 15th century can be linked to them. After a major fire, it was rebuilt in 1592. Later, in the 18th century, it was transformed into a Baroque style. When the building was built as a convent for nuns (Daughters of the Divine Redeemer) in 1877, the former church was transformed into the monastery's chapel, then underwent an eclectic reconstruction, and in 1885, an expansion.

Rothermann Castle (Kossuth L. u. 53.)

In its present form, it has an eclectic appearance typical of the end of the 19th century. According to recent research, the current building was built on the site of an older castle.

Szentkút Chapel (54 Kőszegi Street)

Today's early classicist style chapel was built in 1815-16 and was designed by Ferenc Schrenk. Its facade sculptures depict St. Anne with the child Mary and St. John of Nepomuk. Its altar is neo-Gothic.

Chapel of Our Lady (external area)

It was built in 1869 by Count Gyula Jankovich in the Neo-Gothic style on the site of the old Boldogasssony Church. Count Antal Jankovich, the owner of the family's estate in Csepreg, and his wife Katalin Nemeskéri Kiss, as well as their son Antal, who died at the age of seven, are buried here.



Jánosné Balogh Terézia Horváth: The King of Pentecost at Csepregen and Jókai. Csepreg, 2005.

Terézia Balogh Jánosné Horváth: A school teacher and clerk in the 19th century. in the first half of the century. In: Vasi Szemle LX. (2006) 473-496.

Terézia Jánosné Balogh Horváth: Tri domovine Janković vlastela – Hrvatska, Ugarska, Austrija – 99 mosaics of past history and cultural history. Čepreg, 2019.

Drizzle on old picture postcards and photos. Edited by: Zsuzsanna Molnár Lászlón Sudár. H.n. (Drip), 2000.

Jenő Dénes: Csepreg settlement geography. Geographia Pannonica XXVI. Pécs, 1937.

József Dénes: Two fundamental questions surrounding the formation of Csepreg. Addenda to Csepreg's settlement history sketch. In: Vasi Szemle LX. (2006) 422-426.

József Dénes: Main Square Castle of Csepreg. In: Castles, castles, churches. Historical and heritage tourism magazine, December 2007 (Vol. III, No. 6) 36-39.

Sándor Farkas: The history of Csepreg market town. Budapest, 1887. (reprint: Csepreg, 1996)

Richárd Horváth: Sources for the medieval history of the fortress of Csepreg In: Vasi Szemle LX. (2006) 427-435.

Ágnes Jobst: Drop in the storm of 20th century history 1900-1960. Szombathely, 2020.

Árpád Nógrády: Siege of Csepreg and capture of Sárvár in 1454. In: Vasi Szemle LXIV. (2010) pp. 685-697.

Zoltán Pukler: Selections from the religious history of Csepreg. Drip, 2019.

Mária Mechtilda Rajczy: Csepreg's literary past and folk poetry traditions. Publications of the "Sopron Review" No. 163, Sopron, 1944. (reprint. Csepreg, 1997)

György Reichardt: Millennium overview of Csepreg. Drip um die Jahrtausendwende. Drip, 2000-2001.

Ferenc Sági: Civic development and associations in Csepreg. In: Vasi Szemle LX. (2006) pp. 451-472.

Ferenc Sági: The relationship between Pál Nagy of Felsőbüki and Izidor Jankovich of Daruvár. In: Vasi Szemle LXII. (2008) pp. 63-69.

Ferenc Sági: The national guard of the Répce region in 1848. In: Vasi Szemle LXIII. (2009) pp. 48-65.

Ferenc Sági: Additions to the history of grape production and wine trade in Csepreg. In: Vasi Szemle LXVIII. (2014) pp. 106-109.

Studies from the history of Csepreg. Ed.: József Dénes. Csepreg, 1996.

Lőrinc Wellner: Drip. H.n., n.n. (Csepreg, 1981.)


Written by Dr. József Dénes